如何检查便宜独立服务器上的硬盘是否已经损坏或者有坏道?

Raksmart、QN、VirMach等国外商家都在促销便宜服务器,性价比非常高,要警觉的一点就是很多便宜的独立服务器都用来chia挖矿,硬盘损耗非常大,严重影响硬盘寿命,非常容易损坏。所以购买低端便宜独服要特别注意一下。虽然硬盘坏了,可以要求商家更换硬盘,但是比较麻烦。

我们可以通过几段代码就可以快速检查硬盘状态,只适用于独立服务器,不能用在VPS和VDS上,因为VPS和VDS存储是虚拟化的,不是物理硬盘。

就像我们在PC上检查硬盘是否损坏一样,在独服上也是使用 S.M.A.R.T,来检测和报告硬盘可靠性的各种指标。很多童鞋都知道 S.M.A.R.T,不多讲了。

首先,安装smart-tools软件包。以Debian为例。

apt-get install smartmontools

下一步,查询硬盘

smartctl -a /dev/sdg

下面是一份几乎全新(使用不到72小时)的西数 6TB  SATA硬盘 报告。

# smartctl -a /dev/sdg
smartctl 6.6 2016-05-31 r4324 [x86_64-linux-4.9.0-16-amd64] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-16, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Device Model:     WDC WD6003FZBX-00K5WB0
Serial Number:    V9JGEZSL
LU WWN Device Id: 5 000cca 0bde2c0ba
Firmware Version: 01.01A01
User Capacity:    6,001,175,126,016 bytes [6.00 TB]
Sector Sizes:     512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical
Rotation Rate:    7200 rpm
Form Factor:      3.5 inches
Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
ATA Version is:   ACS-2, ATA8-ACS T13/1699-D revision 4
SATA Version is:  SATA 3.2, 6.0 Gb/s (current: 6.0 Gb/s)
Local Time is:    Sun Jul 11 11:52:27 2021 PDT
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x82) Offline data collection activity
 was completed without error.
 Auto Offline Data Collection: Enabled.
Self-test execution status:      (   0) The previous self-test routine completed
 without error or no self-test has ever 
 been run.
Total time to complete Offline 
data collection: (   87) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:  (0x5b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
 Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
 Suspend Offline collection upon new
 command.
 Offline surface scan supported.
 Self-test supported.
 No Conveyance Self-test supported.
 Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003) Saves SMART data before entering
 power-saving mode.
 Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01) Error logging supported.
 General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine 
recommended polling time:  (   2) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:  ( 593) minutes.
SCT capabilities:        (0x0035) SCT Status supported.
 SCT Feature Control supported.
 SCT Data Table supported.
SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 16
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x000b   100   100   016    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  2 Throughput_Performance  0x0004   133   133   054    Old_age   Offline      -       92
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0007   100   100   024    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   100   100   005    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x000a   100   100   067    Old_age   Always       -       0
  8 Seek_Time_Performance   0x0004   128   128   020    Old_age   Offline      -       18
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       69
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0012   100   100   060    Old_age   Always       -       0
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       4
193 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0012   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       4
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0002   141   141   000    Old_age   Always       -       39 (Min/Max 25/41)
196 Reallocated_Event_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0022   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0008   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x000a   200   200   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged
SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
No self-tests have been logged.  [To run self-tests, use: smartctl -t]
SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 1
 SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
    1        0        0  Not_testing
    2        0        0  Not_testing
    3        0        0  Not_testing
    4        0        0  Not_testing
    5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0):
  After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

Power_On_Hours:硬盘通电的总时间。

Power_Cycle_Count:该硬盘多久进行一次电源循环?

Raw_Read_Error_Rate, Seek_Error_Rate, Offline_Uncorrectable:这些最好是零。

Reallocated_Event_Coun:理想情况下,应该是零和比较低的数字。

SMART overall-health self-assessment test result:测试结果,通过提示为PASSED。

如果独立服务器的硬盘报告显示寿命已经使用好几年了,或者出现很多错误,可能联系你的主机商,要求进行更换,避免影响项目部署。

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